(See Catal. Henry II faced significant backlash in both England and Europe over Thomas’s asassination. Updates? Throughout his adult life Henry’s sexual morality was lax; but his relations with Eleanor, 11 years his senior, were for long tolerably harmonious, and, between 1153 and 1167, she bore him eight children. Short Biography. In 1164, Henry reasserted his ancestral rights over the church. Heinrich II. Henry now had problems within his own family. war Herzog der Normandie und von Aquitanien, Graf von Anjou sowie König von England . Two other practices developed by Henry became permanent.  © He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and … His father was Count of Anjou and his mother Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. Read more. Finally, the increasing use of scutage, and the availability of the royal courts for private suits, were effective agents in molding the feudal monarchy into a monarchical bureaucracy before the appearance of Parliament. At the beginning of his reign Henry found England in disorder, with royal authority ruined by civil war and the violence of feudal magnates. In the early months of the reign the King, using his energetic and versatile chancellor Becket, beat down the recalcitrant barons and their castles and began to restore order to the country and to the various forms of justice. In 1150 - 1151, Henry became ruler of Normandy and Anjou, after the death of his father. Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, 1151-1189. Omissions? Moreover, Henry’s decrees ensured that the judge-and-jury combination would become normal and that the jury would gradually supplant ordeal and battle as being responsible for the verdict. As a remedy Henry established the possessory writ, an order from the Exchequer, directing the sheriff to convene a sworn local jury at petty assize to establish the fact of dispossession, whereupon the sheriff had to reinstate the defendant pending a subsequent trial at the grand assize to establish the rights of the case. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French language: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. King of England from 1154, Henry strengthened royal administration but suffered from quarrels with Thomas Becket and his own family. Now archbishop of Canterbury, Becket refused to comply. There were serious family disputes in 1173, 1181 and 1184. Henry II (1133–1189) was crowned king of England in 1154. Richard joined the protest of the others and was supported by Eleanor. An attempted reconciliation failed and Becket punished priests who had co-operated with Henry. Henry was forced to give way. Heinrich had 6 siblings: John I King of England, Wilhelm der Normandie and 4 other siblings. His father was Count of Anjou and his mother Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. Henry II, Plantagenet Empire.png 322 × 376; 26 KB Pipe roll 1174 record type.jpg 1,809 × 1,000; 469 KB Spinello Heinrich as the Doge's prisoner.jpg 602 × 464; 129 KB Henry, who was the duke of Aquitaine, had a claim to the English throne, and he invaded England in 1153. Henry II of England, also known as Henry II Curtmantle (Le Mans, France, 5 March 1133 – Chinon, France, 6 July 1189) was also Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. In the course of his reign, Henry had dominion over territories stretching from the Ireland to the Pyrenees. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. His first task was to crush the unruly elements and restore firm government, using the existing institutions of government, with which the Anglo-Norman monarchy was well provided. Of stocky build, with freckled face, close-cut tawny hair, and gray eyes, he dressed carelessly and grew to be bulky; but his personality commanded attention and drew men to his service. Cut short cross farthing of Henry II (FindID 707098).jpg 445 × 289; 133 KB The feudal regime introduced by the Normans added courts of the manor and of the honour (a complex of estates). Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March 1133. Matters were eased by the death of Geoffrey (1186), but the King’s attempt to find an inheritance for John led to a coalition against him of Richard and the young Philip II Augustus, who had succeeded his father, Louis VII, as king of France. Henry became Count of Anjou and Maine upon the death of his father, Geoffrey of Anjou, in 1151. When Stephen died the following year Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming lord of territories stretching from Scotland to the Pyrenees. 19 Aug 1186 CE. Henry II, byname Henry of Anjou, Henry Plantagenet, Henry FitzEmpress, or Henry Curtmantle (Short Mantle), (born 1133, Le Mans, Maine [now in France]—died July 6, 1189, near Tours), duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. Though acknowledging Alexander, he continued throughout the Becket controversy to threaten transference of allegiance to Frederick’s antipope, thus impeding Alexander’s freedom of action. Read more. Thibaut du Perche (-bef1211) 3. … tree. In addition, the assizes gave fast and clear verdicts, enriched the treasury and extended royal control. The next day the King of Scots was taken at Alnwick, and three weeks later Henry had suppressed the rebellion in England. His sons were pardoned, but Eleanor was kept in custody until her husband died. There was a general revolt of the baronage in England and Normandy, supported by Louis VII in France and William the Lion in Scotland. Trial of those accused was reserved to the King’s justices, and prisons for those awaiting trial were to be erected at the King’s expense. Corrections? His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with members of his own family ultimately brought about his defeat. The Assize of Clarendon (1166) established procedures of criminal justice, establishing courts and prisons for those awaiting trial. Henry was the son … Henry II, first of the Angevin Kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs. In his long reign of 34 years he spent an aggregate of only 14 in England. The king's attempt to find an inheritance for John led to opposition from Richard and Philip II of France. Henry took a personal interest in the technique of the Exchequer, which was described at length for posterity in the celebrated Dialogus de scaccario, whose composition seemed to Maitland “one of the most wonderful things of Henry’s wonderful reign.” How far these royal servants were responsible for the innovations of the reign cannot be known, though the development in practice continued steadily, even during the King’s long absences abroad. Author of. Richard succeeded his father as king. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS King Henry II was born March 5, 1133, in Le Mans, France. Almost overnight Becket became a saint. Henry II of England, also known as Henry II Curtmantle (Le Mans, France, 5 March 1133 – Chinon, France, 6 July 1189) was also Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Those at Westminster dealt with private pleas and cases sent up from the justices on eyre. Matilda of England (1156-1189) 3. Henry was born on March 5 1133, in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. Upon the death of Edward III, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne. Henry II of England King of England, 1154-1189. His sons - Henry, Geoffrey, Richard and John - mistrusted each other and resented their father's policy of dividing land among them. Thomas Becket being murdered by four knights in Canterbury Cathedral on December 29, 1170. This writ was returnable; if the sheriff failed to achieve reinstatement, he had to summon the defendant to appear before the King’s justices and himself be present with the writ. Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies which he held until 1180.. It was thus, a few years later, that he came into conflict with the bishops, then led by Becket, over the alleged right of clerics to be tried for crime by an ecclesiastical court. By the multiplication of a class of experts in finance and law Henry did much to establish two great professions, and the location of a permanent court at Westminster and the character of its business settled for England (and for much of the English-speaking world) that common law, not Roman law, would rule the courts and that London, and not an academy, would be its principal nursery. Henry (1173/1174 – 28 April 1227), named after his father and probably also after his maternal grandfather King Henry II of England; he campaigned with King Henry VI of Germany in Italy in 1190, but deserted in southern Italy and was outlawed at Worms in May 1192 and only restored to favour in January 1194 at Würzburg following his marriage. Of his five sons, only Richard and John survived his death on July 6, 1189. A doubt of guilt was settled by ordeal by battle; the accused in the shire underwent tests held to reveal God’s judgment. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. His marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII had recently been ann… Regius Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge, 1954–63. Henry’s prestige was at a low ebb after the murder of Becket and recent taxation, but he reacted energetically, settled matters in Normandy and Brittany, and crossed to England, where fighting had continued for a year. The justices formed three groups: one on tour, one “on the bench” at Westminster, and one with the King when the court was out of London. Henry was born at Le Mans in north west France on 4 March 1133. Early in his reign Henry obtained from Malcolm IV of Scotland homage and the restoration of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland, and later in the reign (1174) homage was exacted from William the Lion, Malcolm’s brother and successor. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Henry II of England (1133-1189)/tree < Henry II of England (1133-1189) Edit. Henry II’s plans to divide the Angevin “empire” among his sons led to many quarrels and wars. Henry II ruled as King of England, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. When Stephen died the following year, Henry succeeded without opposition, thus becoming King Henry II of England. Henry II of England (1133-1189) 2. In 1169, an Anglo-Norman force landed in Ireland to support of one of the claimants to the Irish high kingship. His continental dominions brought him into contact with Louis VII of France, the German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and, for much of the reign, Pope Alexander III. In 1170 he crowned his eldest son, Henry, as co-regent with himself; but in fact the young king had no powers and resented his nonentity, and in 1173 he opposed his father’s proposal to find territories for the favoured John (Lackland) at the expense of Geoffrey. Four or more generations of descendants of Henry II of England (1133-1189) if they are properly linked: 1. On hearing this Henry reportedly exclaimed, 'Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?' Henry II (King) of ENGLAND `Curtmantle' (`Courtmanteau'); d' ANJOU (ANGEVIN); FitzEMPRESS; PLANTAGENET. His reign was a sharp contrast to the anarchy under Stephen and led to the English Common Law. established by Henry II of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou, comprised of half of France, all of England, parts of Ireland and Wales anglo saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Henry II This system presupposed regular visits by the King’s justices on circuit (or, in the technical phrase, “on eyre”), and these tours became part of the administration of the country. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-II-king-of-England, Spartacus Educational - Biography of King Henry II, British Broadcasting Corporation - Biography of Henry II, Henry II - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Henry II - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Henry acquired most of the Continental possessions that would expand the kingdom of England before he became king in 1154. Using his talented chancellor Thomas Becket, Henry began reorganising the judicial system. In feudal courts the trial by battle could be avoided by the establishment of a concord, or fine. Four knights took his words literally and murdered Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in December 1170. Henry met Rosamund at some point in 1166, and it is thought his publicly favoring Rosamund was an attempt to instigate Eleanor into requesting a divorce. The quarrel with Becket, Henry’s trusted and successful chancellor (1154–62), broke out soon after Becket’s election to the archbishopric of Canterbury (May 1162). of England, as Ducbhess of Narbonne, Countess of Toulouse, and Marchioness of Provence, ob. Fearing the creation of a separate Norman power to the west, Henry travelled to Dublin to assert his overlordship of the territory they had won. Geoffrey, Count of Brittany and son of Henry II of England, dies in an accident at a medieval tournament. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. of Seals, vol. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. descendants. Henry II, king of England (1154–89) who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. One was scutage, the commutation of military service for a money payment; the other was the obligation, put on all free men with a property qualification by the Assize of Arms (1181), to possess arms suitable to their station. He issued the Constitutions of Clarendon, which restricted ecclesiastical privileges and curbed the power of church courts. Image from. In medieval England, the life of St. Edward the Confessor functioned as ideological myth; Henry III used it to show that the Plantagenet dynasty had reconciled two ‘nations’ within England after the Norman Conquest. Eleanor was born in 1121. In 1152, he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, the greatest heiress in western Europe. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The fees enriched the treasury, and recourse to the courts both extended the King’s control and discouraged irregular self-help. Henry II brought Eleanor out France and into England in July 1174, keeping her imprisoned for the rest of his life. More dangerous were the domestic quarrels, which thwarted Henry’s plans and even endangered his life and which finally brought him down in sorrow and shame. William Plantagenet, Count of Poitiers (1153-1156) 2. The king retreated to Ireland to escape Pope Alexander III’s wrath. Media in category "Coins of Henry II of England" The following 51 files are in this category, out of 51 total. Er war der erste der angevinischen Könige, die auch als das Haus Plantagenet bezeichnet wurden. He was already Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, and became Duke of Aquitaine when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine, the former queen of France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England. Henry II of England 1154-1189. v., no. Zeitweise beherrschte er Wales, Schottland, das östliche Irland und das westliche Frankreich. The quarrel touched what was to be the King’s chief concern—the country’s judicial system. In 1153, he crossed to England to pursue his claim to the throne, reaching an agreement that he would succeed Stephen on his death, which occurred in 1154. Equally effective were the “possessory assizes.” In the feudal world, especially in times of turmoil, violent ejections and usurpations were common, with consequent vendettas and violence. The council contained an unusually able group of men—some of them were great barons, such as Richard de Lucy and Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester; others included civil servants, such as Nigel, bishop of Ely, Richard Fitzneale, and his son, Richard of Ilchester. This was the writ of Novel Disseisin (i.e., recent dispossession). Thomas du Perche (-1217) 4. After six months in exile, the pope and king reconciled. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death. The feud with Louis implied friendly relations with Germany, where Henry was helped by his mother’s first marriage to the emperor Henry V but hindered by Frederick’s maintenance of an antipope, the outcome of a disputed papal election in 1159. The first of three Angevin kings of England, he expanded the Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration. The Angevins descend from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou.In 1060 this couple inherited, via cognatic kinship, the county of Anjou from an older line dating from 870 and a noble called Ingelger. On July 12, 1174, he did public penance at Canterbury. Henry the Young King (28 February 1155 – 11 June 1183) was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine.Beginning in 1170, he was titular King of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine.Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman Conquest to be crowned during his father's reign, but was frustrated by his father's … Henry had taken Louis’s former wife and her rich heritage. He was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. This provided a system of criminal investigation for the whole country, with a reasonable verdict probable because the firm accusation of the jury entailed exile even if the ordeal acquitted the accused. This is a list of monarchs (and other royalty and nobility) sorted by nickname.This list is divided into two parts: Cognomens: Also called cognomina.These are names which are appended before or after the person's name, like the epitheton necessarium, or Roman victory titles.Examples are "William the Conqueror" for William I of England, and "Frederick Barbarossa" for Frederick I, … Henry had named Matilda as his successor to the English throne but her cousin Stephen had taken over. 1199. This not only made Henry powerful but also the head of a large empire, called the Angevin Empire. He could be a good companion, with ready repartee in a jostling crowd, but he displayed at times an ungovernable temper and could be heartless and ruthless when necessary. Main. Heinrich "der Jüngere" von England was born on month day 1155, to Henry II of England and Eleanor Princess of Aquitane England. Determined to assert his rights in all his lands, Henry II reasserted the centralized power of his grandfather, Henry I, in England. Henry II had to allow himself to be whipped by the monks of Canterbury, to signal his atonement for the fact that he had, supposedly unwittingly, led to the murder of the most important Church official in England. Anglo-Saxon England had two courts of justice—that of the hundred, a division of the shire, for petty offenses, and that of the shire, presided over by the sheriff. Note: Valiant soldier, tireless administrator, ``always gentle and calm in times of urgent peril,'' loved and was loved by his people. Richard II Portrait at … Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It led to a complete severance of relations and to the Archbishop’s voluntary exile. He is the father of King Richard He inherited the throne from his mother, the daughter of King Henry I. Scroll below and check our most recent updates about Henry II Of England Net Worth, Salary, Biography, Age, Career, Wiki. Henry II of England sends his son John to rule Ireland with the title of 'Lord of Ireland'. He subsequently acquired the Vexin in Normandy by the premature marriage of his son Henry to Louis’s daughter, and during much of his reign he attempted to outfight or outwit the French king, who, for his part, gave shelter and comfort to Henry’s enemy, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1184 Richard quarrelled with John, who had been ordered to take Aquitaine off his hands. In 1157 Henry invaded Wales and received homage, though without conquest. After his death in 1199, John ascended the throne. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. After receiving a good literary education, part of it in England, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1150 and count of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine on the death of his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, in 1151. In striking contrast to the checkered pattern of Henry’s wars and schemes, his governance of England displays a careful and successful adaptation of means to a single end—the control of a realm served by the best administration in Europe. None was blameless, but the cause of the quarrels was principally Henry’s policy of dividing his dominions among his sons while reserving real authority for himself. This success was obscured for contemporaries and later historians by the varied and often dramatic interest of political and personal events, and not until the 19th century—when the study of the public records began and when legal history was illuminated by the British jurist Frederic William Maitland and his followers—did the administrative genius of Henry and his servants appear in its true light. Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death. Some, indeed, were under the feudal overlordship of the king of France. Henry's now began to restore order. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. His remarkable achievements were impaired, however, by the stresses caused by a dispute with Becket and by discords in his own family. Kings. Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux , was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Classic editor History Talk (0) Share. British Library: referencedIn: Johanna, Queen of Sicily, daughter of Henry II. He was as much concerned with his empire in France as he was with England. Two developments had come in since William the Conqueror’s day: the occasional mission of royal justices into the shires and the occasional use of a jury of local notables as fact finders in cases of land tenure. 19,870, and Plate.) King Henry II: Artist's Impression ca 1620. Henry II of England: Grants to Reading Abbey: 1154-1184. Of these, the four sons who survived infancy—Henry, Geoffrey, Richard, and John—repaid his genuine affection with resentment toward their father and discord among themselves. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, and Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and was overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. A result of this was the celebrated collection of decrees—the Constitutions of Clarendon (1164)—which professed to reassert the ancestral rights of the King over the church in such matters as clerical immunity, appointment of bishops, custody of vacant sees, excommunication, and appeals to Rome. This is a misnomer, for Henry’s sovereignty rested upon various titles, and there was no institutional or legal bond between different regions. His quarrels with the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, and with various family members (including his son, Richard the Lionheart) ultimately brought about his defeat. Louis supported Alexander III, whose case was strong, and Henry became arbiter of European opinion. Henry invaded England in 1153, and King Stephen agreed to accept him as coadjutor and heir. He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly brought his rebellious barons under royal control. Henry began publicly displaying his great love and favorite, Rosamund, in 1174. In any case, the long-term results were very great. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. News that John had also turned against him hastened Henry's death on 6 July 1189. Duke of Aquitaine (jure uxoris), 1152-1189.Henry succeeded his father as count of Anjou and duke of Normandy in 1151, and his cousin Stephen as king of England in 1154, after the civil war in which his mother Matilda had fought unsuccessfully for the English crown. The ministers who engaged upon these reforms took a fully professional interest in the business they handled, as may be seen in Fitzneale’s writing on the Exchequer and that of the chief justiciar, Ranulf de Glanville, on the laws of England; and many of the expedients adopted by the King may have been suggested by them. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Henry II Of England was born on March 5, 1133, in England. A similar writ of Mort d’Ancestor decided whether the ancestor of a plaintiff had in fact possessed the estate, whereas that of Darrein Presentment (i.e., last presentation) decided who in fact had last presented a parson to a particular benefice. Henry II of England Henry II of England. ahnentafel. The Archbishop, after an initial compliance, refused to accept these, and they were throughout the controversy a block to an agreement. For a wider selection of images connected with Henry II of England, see Category:Henry II of England. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. And so, an English presence in Ireland was established. Above all stood the King’s right to set up courts for important pleas and to hear, either in person or through his ministers, any appeal.

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